Figure 7: Effects of Chronic VNS on Survival

Five-week VNS markedly improved survival both in the prevention (red, n = 14; p < 0.01) and treatment (purple, n = 14; p < 0.05) groups compared with the SS (blue, n = 25) group, with relative risk reductions of 53.0% and 34.2%, respectively. The survival assessment was started from 5 weeks after SU5416 injection. Prevention, 5-week VNS initiated from 0 weeks after SU5416 injection; treatment, 5-week VNS initiated from 5 weeks after SU5416 injection (0 weeks in Figure 7). Differences were tested by using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank testing among the SS-prevention, SS-treatment, and prevention-treatment groups. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 vs. SS. n.s. = not significant; other abbreviations as in Figure 2.