Figure 6: Anti-Inflammatory Effects of CDCs in HFpEF

(A) Cardiosphere-derived cell (CDC) treatment normalizes the expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines in serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (n = 4 in each group). (B) CDC treatment decreases myocardial infiltration by macrophages (CD68) and leukocytes (CD45) in the left ventricle (n = 5 in each group). *p < 0.05 versus placebo- and CDC-treated rats and †p < 0.05 versus control and CDC-treated rats, by nonparametric tests for (A) and by analysis of variance for (B). CINC = cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant; CINC = cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant; CNTF = ciliary neurotrophic factor; GMCSF = granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; INF = interferon; IL = interleukin; NGF = nerve growth factor; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor.