Figure 5: Presence of Apolipoprotein(a), Oxidation-Specific Epitopes, and Autotaxin in Grade 3 of Aortic Valve Disease

Sequential sections stained for alizarin red S and macrophages (CD68) (upper panel), apolipoprotein (a) (LPA4) and autotaxin (ATX) (middle panel), as well as oxidized phospholipids (EO6) and malondialdehyde epitopes (MDA2) (lower panel). Note the predominance of cholesterol crystals compared to calcified areas (∗) in this individual lesion and co-localization of the different antigens around cholesterol crystal deposits (#). Sometimes additional intracellular oxidized phospholipid staining is also evident (arrowheads). In all panels, the aortic side of the valve is at the top.