Figure 4: FAs Prevent HIF-1α Accumulation in Hypoxia

(A to D) HIF-1α protein levels, lactate release, glucose consumption, and neutral lipid oil-red-O staining in normoxia and hypoxia in HL-1 cardiomyocytes cultured in control medium, insulin-resistant medium, and the 2 components that comprise the insulin-resistant medium: high insulin (50 nmol/l) and high palmitate (500 μmol/l). (E and F) HIF-1α protein levels and lactate release in hypoxic cells cultured in control medium (HC), insulin-resistant medium (HIR), and control medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) palmitate or oleate (bound to BSA). (E) HIF-1α protein in hypoxic insulin-resistant cells when FA uptake was blocked with sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), immediately before the onset of hypoxia (HIR+SSO). *p < 0.05 versus respective normoxic group, $p < 0.05 versus hypoxic control. A.U. = arbitrary units.