Figure 4: Effects of Chronic VNS on Histology of PA

Values are mean ± SEM. Differences were tested by using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc Tukey-Kramer test. ∗∗p < 0.01 vs. CTRL. ‡p < 0.01 vs. SS. (A) Representative photomicrographs of Verhoeff–van Gieson staining. Arrowheads indicate occlusive pulmonary artery (PA). (B) Pulmonary arterial occlusions are graded as grade 0 (no luminal occlusion; white), grade 1 (< 50% occlusion; light gray), and grade 2 (≧50% occlusion; dark gray). Percentage of occlusive PAs with outer diameter (OD) ≦50 μm (left) and 50 < OD <100 μm (right). Representative photomicrographs of (C) immunostained CD68-positive cells, (D) Ki67-positive cells, and (E) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells are shown (n = 4 in each group). Arrowheads in (E) indicate TUNEL-positive cells. Other abbreviations as in Figure 2.