Figure 3: SIL Improved mtDNA-Encoded Gene Expression and Mitochondrial Respiration in Chagasic Mice

Mice were infected with T. cruzi and treated with SIL as described in the text. (A) Shown in a–e are the relative changes in gene expression for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes ND1, ND4, CYTB, COXIII, and ATP6, determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results were normalized to GAPDH mRNA, and presented as fold change in mRNA levels in chronically infected mice (±SIL) as compared with that noted in normal control mice. (B) Cardiac mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation. Electron flow in freshly isolated mitochondria was supported with complex I (glutamate/pyruvate/malate, a) and complex II (succinate + rotenone, b) substrates and the ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration (i.e., oxygen consumption) was measured. Respiratory control ratio (RCR) (c) was calculated as the ratios between complex II–supported state 3 and state 4 rates. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.