Figure 3: Cardiac Metabolic Rates, Energy Production, and Cardiac Efficiency in

Working heart perfusion derived palmitate (fatty acid) oxidation (n = 7 for db/db, n = 6 for db/db + 600 μM βOHB) (A), glucose oxidation (n = 5 for db/db, n = 8 for db/db + 600 μM βOHB) (B), and glycolysis (n = 4 to 5 for db/db, n = 7 to 8 for db/db + 600 μM βOHB) (C) levels. βOHB (ketone body) oxidation levels (n = 8 for db/db + 600 μM βOHB) (D) are also shown. Cardiac ATP production and comparison between contribution from glycolysis and the oxidation of glucose, palmitate, and βOHB (n = 5 to 8 for all groups) (E). Cardiac efficiency of the ex vivo heart as determined by normalizing cardiac work to oxygen consumption (n = 10 for db/db, n = 15 for db/db + 600 μM βOHB) (F). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA followed by LSD post hoc test. Three separate 1-way ANOVAs were performed to determine each substrate’s contribution to ATP production. *p < 0.05 was considered as a significantly different comparison to the insulin-absent levels of the same group. For E, ‡p < 0.05 was considered as significantly different in comparison with the same group in the absence of insulin. Abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2.



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