Figure 2: Experimental and In Vivo Procedures

(A) In vitro procedure setup. (B) Photography of a part of the in vitro setup. The bioprosthesis (A) was placed in front of the therapy device composed of a therapy transducer (C) and an imaging transducer (D). The 2 pressure sensors (B) were positioned before and after the valve. (C) In vivo procedure, in the beating heart. The bioprosthesis was implanted in the mitral position, between the LA and the LV. The Swan-Ganz catheter (blue, to estimate the cardiac flow in real time), was positioned into the right heart (RV and RA) and the pulmonary artery. The Millar catheters (green), were positioned into the LA and LV to estimate the transvalvular gradient in real time. PCU was then applied all over the bioprosthesis by moving the therapy device using the 3-axis motorized stage. LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle; RA = right atrium; RV = right ventricle.



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