Figure 1: Rat Model of HFpEF: Phenotype and Responsiveness to Treatment With Cardiosphere-Derived Cells

(A) Study design. (B) Cardiosphere-derived cell manufacturing protocol. (C) Representative images of transmitral flow by Doppler echocardiography at endpoint in control, placebo-treated, and cardiosphere-derived cell (CDC)–treated rats. (D) CDC treatment normalizes ratio of early to late ventricular filling velocity (E/A ratio) at 4 weeks, while the E/A ratio in placebo-treated rats remains depressed. Systolic function assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (E,F) and by fractional area change (FAC) (G,H) is equivalent in all groups. Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (I) are equivalent in all groups. (J) CDC treatment halts heart failure with preserved ejection fraction–related left atrial enlargement, while placebo does not. (Baseline and pre-treatment, n = 10 for control rats and n = 24 for placebo- and CDC-treated rats; 1 week post-treatment, n = 10 for control rats, n = 21 for placebo- and CDC-treated rats; at endpoint, n = 10 for control rats, n = 15 for placebo-treated rats, n = 18 for CDC-treated rats). *p < 0.05 versus placebo and CDC groups and †p < 0.05 versus placebo, both by analysis of variance. LAV = left atrial volume; LVV = left ventricular volume; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; ttt = treatment.