Figure 1: Protocols 1 and 2 Schematics

(Top) Protocol 1: flow-mediated dilation (FMD) 1 measured at baseline, FMD 2 measured after infusion of caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLAC). Remote ischemic pre-conditioning (rIPC) is then delivered, and FMD 3 is measured after ischemia-reperfusion (IR). (Middle) Protocol 2: Study 1. FMD 1 is measured before rIPC. Caffeine is infused into the trigger arm generating rIPC. FMD is measured after IR. (Bottom) Protocol 2: Study 2. The target arm is infused with caffeine, and the dose response to acetylcholine (Ach) is measured. rIPC is delivered. Dose response to ACh is measured after IR. GTN = glyceryltrinitrate; NMD = nitrate-mediated dilation.



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