Central Illustration: The Pleiotropic Effects of BAG3

The major pathways are illustrated through which BAG3 acts to mediate its primary functions in the heart: facilitation of autophagy, inhibition of apoptosis, maintenance of adrenergic responsiveness and excitation–contraction coupling, support of the sarcomere, and modulation of gene expression. αGs = alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein; β1-AR = β1-adrenergic receptor; AC = adenylyl cyclase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BAD = B-cell lymphoma-2–associated death; Bax = B-cell lymphoma-2–associated X protein; BAK = B-cell lymphoma-2 homologous promoter; antagonist/killer; Bcl-2 = B-cell lymphoma-2; cAMP = cyclic adenosine monophosphate; Cav-1.2 = L-type Ca2+ channel; Cyt C = cytochrome C; FOX M1 = Forkhead box 14 M1 transcription factor; HIF 1α = hypoxia-inducible factor 1 active transcription factor; LATS = serine/threonine protein kinase; LC3 = microtubule-associated protein 1A/B-light chain 3; p53 = tumor suppressor protein; SR = sarcoplasmic reticulum; PKA = protein kinase A; SYNPO2 = protein coding gene synaptopodin 2; Tomm20 = mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM20 homolog; VDAC = voltage-dependent anion channel; YAP = yes-associated transcriptional regulator; YAZ = transcription factor; other abbreviations as in Figure 1.



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