Central Illustration: Hypothetical Model for the Metabolic Origins of Heart Failure

ADP = adenosine diphosphate; AMP = adenosine monophosphate; AMPK = adenosine monophosphate kinase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BCAA = branched-chain amino acids; BCKA = branched chain keto acid; BCKDH = branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase; CoA = coenzyme A; FA = fatty acid; FAO = fatty acid oxidation; KB = ketone body; mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin.



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