Figure 9: CM Canonical TGF-β Signaling is Essential to Maintain Adult Heart Homeostasis

Deletion of canonical TGF-β signaling in adult CMs by targeting SMAD4 leads to down-regulation of several ion-channel genes and a key sarcomeric protein, cMyBP-C. These adverse effects of SMAD4 deletion results in cardiac conduction abnormalities and hyper contractile phenotype and are at least in part responsible for dilated cardiomyopathy development. Importantly, CM-specific canonical TGF-β signaling does not seem to be a significant contributor of fibrosis in adult hearts. Abbreviations as in Figures 1, 6, and 7.

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