Figure 6: Post-Mortem Myocardial Tissue From Takotsubo Patients

Post-mortem myocardial tissue from takotsubo patients show the presence of macrophages and demonstrate an increase/predominance of M1 macrophages. Macrophage staining (CD68-positive cells) showing, as indicated by arrows: (A) scattered macrophages in the subendothelial area of the myocardium in a control subject with no underlying heart condition, (B) very few subendothelial aggregates of macrophages in patient 1 deceased 5 h after presentation with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and (C) subpericardial aggregates of macrophages in the myocardial tissue from patient 2 with takotsubo cardiomyopathy deceased 5 days after presentation. Original magnification ×400. (D) Percentage of CD68-positive macrophages staining for M1 markers HLADR and SOCS3, and M2 marker CD163 in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) (n = 2) and age/sex-matched control subjects (control) (n = 4).