Figure 6: Effects of Chronic VNS on Inflammation of Lung

Values are mean ± SEM. Differences were tested by using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc Tukey-Kramer test. ∗p < 0.05 vs. CTRL, †p < 0.05 and ‡p < 0.01 vs. SS. Quantitative analysis of cytokines and chemokine in CTRL (n = 5), SS (n = 6), and VNS (n = 6) rats at 5 weeks after SU5416 injection. Samples were obtained from the lung. The levels of protein expression of (A) interleukin (IL)-1β, (B) IL-6, (C) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, (D) monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and (E) IL-10 are shown. Other abbreviations as in Figure 2.