Figure 5: MR16-1 Treatment Attenuates Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function

(A) Quantification of IL-6 gene expression levels in S16D hearts and WT control hearts. Values were normalized to those of the internal control GAPDH and expressed as fold-changes relative to those of WT mice. (B) Quantification of IL-6 serum levels in S16D and WT control mice was determined by using an ELISA assay. (C) Schematic presentation of S16D and WT control mice treated with MR16-1 or PBS (control) starting at 1 month of age. Following the baseline echocardiographic assessment, mice were injected with 2 mg/body weight MR16-1 or PBS. Subsequently, mice received 0.5 mg/body per week (2 injections of 0.25 mg/body) during weeks 1, 2, and 3. (D) Left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks; *p < 0.05 versus WT-PBS; #p < 0.05 versus S16D-MR16-1. (E) Representative images (original magnification: ×20) of Picrosirius red staining following 4 weeks of treatment; scale bar: 50 μm. (F) Quantification of percent of ventricular fibrosis (fibrotic area/total ventricular area). (G) Representative Western blots and (H) quantification of P-STAT3 (Y705)/total STAT3 protein levels of the indicated groups. Values are fold-changes relative to those of WT-PBS. The number of samples (n) per group is indicated on the bar graphs. GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; I.P. PBS = intraperitoneal phosphate buffered saline; P-STAT3 = phosphorylated STAT3; other abbreviations as in Figures 3 and 4.

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