Figure 5: Effects of Chronic VNS on Histology of the Right Ventricle

Values are mean ± SEM. Differences were tested by using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc Tukey-Kramer test. ∗p < 0.05 and ∗∗p < 0.01 vs. CTRL. †p < 0.05 and ‡p < 0.01 vs. SS. Representative photomicrographs of (A) Masson trichrome staining (MT), (B) immunostained CD34-positive cells, and (C) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells are shown (n = 4 in each group). Arrowhead in (C) indicates TUNEL-positive cell. Other abbreviations as in Figure 2.