Figure 4: Presence of Apolipoprotein(a), Oxidation-Specific Epitopes, and Autotaxin in Grade 2 of Aortic Valve Disease

Sequential sections stained for alizarin red S and macrophages (CD68) (upper panel), apolipoprotein (a) (LPA4), and autotaxin (ATX) (middle panel), as well as oxidized phospholipids (EO6) and malondialdehyde epitopes (MDA2) (lower panel). Note the small calcified areas (asterisks), the lack of CD68 staining in this individual lesion (high variation of macrophages staining in aortic valve sclerosis), as well as the predominantly extracellular co-localization of the different antigens. In all panels, the aortic side of the valve is at the top.