Figure 4: GMCT Reduces Atrial Fibrosis

(A) Serum levels of procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (P3NP) during atrial fibrillation (AF) progression in saline-treated and GM-CT-01 (GMCT)–treated (N = 10, respectively) groups. Repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple comparisons test, §p < 0.05 versus GMCT at 35d-PeAF, #p < 0.05 versus GMCT at baseline. (B) Protein levels of galectin (Gal)-3, Gal-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in left atrium (LA) tissue samples (N = 4, respectively). (C) Left: Representative picrosirius red staining of posterior left atrium (PLA). Right: Percentage of picrosirius red showing interstitial fibrosis from sham (N = 4), saline-treated (N = 10), and GMCT-treated (N = 10) groups. (D) (Left) Representative blots of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) from (left lane) sham, (middle lane) saline, and (right lane) GMCT. (Right) α-SMA in atrial homogenates in sham, saline-treated, and GMCT-treated (N = 4, respectively) groups. (E) pSmad2(Ser465/467)/Smad2/3 in LA tissue samples (N = 3 to 4). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. 1d-AF = first 1-day-long atrial fibrillation episode; 1st-AF = first atrial fibrillation episode; 7d-PeAF = first continuous 7-day stretch of persistent atrial fibrillation; 35d-PeAF = first continuous 35-day stretch of persistent atrial fibrillation; GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.