Figure 4: Effect of Ambulatory BP Measurement on Sleep Quality

The effect of BP measurement during sleep was evaluated in terms of discomfort using (B) a questionnaire about sleep quality and (C to F) physiological parameters (heart rate [HR], high-frequency [HF], and low-frequency [LF]/HF). (A) Examinees were randomly assigned and subjected to a bedtime BP monitoring study using standard ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) (Study 1). More than 2 months later, the same examinees were subjected to bedtime BP monitoring using the CLB (Study 2). To avoid any bias resulting from device order, the second study was performed after a long interval. There were no significant differences in the mean SBP or DBP recorded by using either of these devices (Supplemental Figure 5A). (B) The effects on sleep quality of standard ABPM and CLB were compared with a questionnaire. The effect of ABPM and CLB on the sleep quality of 35 participants was assessed using ratings provided on a scale of 0 to 2. A higher score indicates better sleep quality during BP monitoring. A score of 2 (white area) indicates fair or usual sleep quality; a score of 1 (gray area) indicates sleep that was mildly disturbed by BP measurement; and a score of 0 (black area) indicates sleep that was significantly disturbed. P < 0.001 according to the McNemar test. (C to F) Changes in physiological parameters. To assess the effect of a BP cuff on sleep quality, HR variability was analyzed. Typical recordings of HR, HF, and LF/HF during (C) Study 1 and (D) Study 2 are shown. (E) Time course of changes in mean HR during sleep by CB (Study 1, blue line) and by CLB (Study 2, red line) are displayed. The mean HR was significantly lower when using CLB (line) during the first hour after going to bed (F), presumably indicating the time to sleep onset. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.