Figure 3: Perturbations in Amino Acid Metabolism During Heart Failure

During heart failure, intracardiac branched chain amino acids are increased while taurine levels are decreased, leading to impairments in autophagy, mitochondrial function, and calcium homeostasis. BCAA = branched-chain amino acids; BCKA = branched chain alpha-keto acids; LAT = large neutral amino acid transporter; mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin; TauT = taurine transporter; TCA = tricarboxylic acid.

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