Figure 3: IR Impairs HIF-1α Protein Accumulation and Downstream Signaling

(A to C) HIF-1α protein accumulation and downstream targets GLUT1 and cyclophilin B protein levels following normoxia and hypoxia, in control and insulin resistant cardiomyocytes. (D) Hypoxia-sensitive phospho-activating transcription factor (pATF) 1 protein levels following normoxia and hypoxia, in control and insulin-resistant (IR) cardiomyocytes. (E and F) mRNA expression of Hif1A, Hif1B, prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (Phd) 2 and 3, factor inhibiting HIF (Fih), and von-Hippel Lindau (vhl), in normoxic control and insulin resistant cardiomyocytes. *p < 0.05 versus normoxic control, #p < 0.05 versus normoxic insulin resistant, $p < 0.05 versus hypoxic control, Ψp < 0.05 versus effect of oxygen at 2-way analysis of variance. A.U. = arbitrary units.