Figure 3: GMCT Mitigates Structural Remodeling During AF Progression

(A) Echocardiographically obtained adjusted left atrial areas in sham (N = 4), saline-treated (N = 10), and GM-CT-01 (GMCT)–treated groups (N = 10). *p < 0.05 versus sham; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 versus saline-treated group. One-way analysis of variance for each time point. (B) Directly measured left atrial areas in sham (n = 4), saline-treated (N = 10), and GMCT-treated groups (N = 10). *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001. (C) Single isolated left atrial cell areas. N/n = 4/192 (sham), N/n = 4/226 (saline), and N/n = 4/234 (GMCT). N = number of animals; n = number of cells. ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. 1d-AF = first 1-day-long atrial fibrillation episode; 1st-AF = first atrial fibrillation episode; 7d-PeAF = first continuous 7-day stretch of persistent atrial fibrillation; 35d-PeAF = first continuous 35-day stretch of persistent atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation; LA = left atrium; PLA = posterior left atrium.