Figure 3: Effects of TSG-6 on Proliferation, Migration, and Signal Transduction in Human VSMCs

(A) Proliferation of HASMCs was determined by WST-8 assay after 48-h incubation in conditioned medium with the indicated concentrations of TSG-6. HASMCs were stained with Giemsa. n = 5; *p = 0.035; †p = 0.029; ‡p < 0.0001 vs. 0 ng/ml of TSG-6. (B) Migration of HASMCs was determined in 10 cells/well using a BIOREVO BZ-9000 microscope in serum-free medium with or without AngII (500 nmol/l) and/or TSG-6 (300 ng/ml). n = 30 from 3 independent experiments. #p < 0.0001. (C) To assess their signal transductions, HASMCs that were incubated for 48 h with or without TSG-6 (300 ng/ml) were subjected to immunoblotting analysis for PI3K, c-Src, Raf-1, phosphorylated ERK1/2, JNK, and NF-κB. α-tubulin served as a loading control. n = 3 to 4; §p = 0.035; ¶p = 0.020; @p = 0.013 vs. 0 ng/ml of TSG-6. All values are presented as mean ± SEM. AngII = angiotensin II; NF-κB = nuclear factor–κB; p-ERK = phosphorylated ERK; PI3K = phosphoinositide 3-kinase; VSMC = vascular smooth muscle cell; other abbreviations as in Figure 1.