Figure 3: Effects of Lp(a) on Inorganic Mineralization in HAVICs

(A) Representative Raman spectra. Noncalcified HAVICs were incubated in OSM in the absence (a) or presence (b) of Lp(a) for 3 weeks; calcified HAVICs were cultured in DMEM medium (c) and bone (d), enamel (e), and standard HA (f). n = 3 for each sample. (B) Inorganic to organic ratio measured by dividing the area of the ν1PO4 peak (inorganic marker) at 960 cm−1 and the area of the CH2/CH3 (organic compounds containing -CH2/-CH3 groups) stretching at 1,440 cm−1 (n = 3 for each sample). Noncalcified HAVICs were incubated in OSM for 3 weeks in the absence or presence of Lp(a), and stenotic HAVICs were cultured in DMEM for 3 weeks. Lp(a)-treated HAVICs and calcified HAVICs showed significantly higher inorganic-organic ratios than nontreated OSM control, with *p = 0.002 and p = 0.0001, respectively. Lp(a)-treated HAVICs showed a higher ratio against calcified HAVICs (#p = 0.03). (C) FWHM measured on the ν1PO4 peak at 960 cm−1 for the spectra of HAVICs from calcified heart valve, noncalcified HAVICs incubated with Lp(a) in OSM for 3 weeks, enamel, bone, and HA. *Significant differences: Lp(a)-treated HAVICs vs. calcified AV, p < 0.001; vs. enamel, bone, and HA, p < 0.0001. AV = aortic valve; FWHM = full width at half maximum; HA = hydroxyapatite; other abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2.