Figure 2: Simplified Image Formation Diagrams for the HVS and Common Extended Reality Displays

Sample extended reality optics configurations for extended reality displays for visualizing a gray sphere at the top of each diagram, as perceived by an observer eye at the bottom of each diagram. (A) The normal human visual system (HVS) observes the sphere directly, and can accommodate variable focal distances. (B) Virtual/merged reality systems magnify an opaque, distortion-compensated display through a plano-convex type (shown) or Fresnel equivalent lens (not shown). (C) In reflective half mirror (“birdbath”) view through systems, light from the display reflects off a semitransparent splitter and focus/combiner to the eye. (D) In computer-generated holography (CGH), an incoming light wave front (right) is shaped through the spatial light modulator (SLM) (center) to match the wave front of the sphere from the correct focal distance. (E) In polarizing reflector waveguides, the input display is coupled into the waveguide with a polarizing mirror and reflected internally. Polarized reflectors selectively decouple light from waveguide to the eye. (F) In an array of half mirrors, light from the display is internally reflected through the waveguide, and is reflected to the eye through an array of small, semi-reflective mirrors (shown as a bold line) rather than an equivalent large mirror (not shown). (G) In diffraction waveguides, light is coupled from the display through diffraction structures such as surface grating diffraction (SGD) shown or holographic optical element (HOE), not shown. Light is then reflected internally through the waveguide and decoupled out through a corresponding output diffraction structure. Note that only the normal HVS (A) and CGH (D) support multiple focal planes as shown.

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