Figure 2: Schematic Demonstrating the Location and Stimulation Sites for Device-Based Neuromodulation Modality

2019-06-11T07:01:37Z (GMT) by Mirnela Byku Douglas L. Mann
(A) Vagus nerve stimulator placed in right subpectoral region with standard transvenous pacing/sensing lead placed in right ventricular (closed loop) and vagus nerve stimulating lead (dotted white lines) tunneled to cervical vagus region. (B) Vagus nerve stimulator placed in right subpectoral region with vagus nerve stimulating lead (dotted white line) tunneled to cervical vagus region (open loop). (C) The spinal cord stimulation (SCS) generator is implanted in abdomen or paraspinous region with stimulation lead (blue line) placed in dorsal epidural space at thoracic level 4. (D) Baroreflex stimulation generator placed in right subpectoral region with bilateral stimulation leads tunneled to the carotid baroreceptor region. Modified and adapted with permission from Lopshire and Zipes (14). BAT = baroreceptor activation therapy; SCS = spinal cord stimulation; VNS = vagus nerve stimulation.