Figure 2: ROS Production Is Increased in RBCs From Mice With Type 2 Diabetes and Is Regulated by Arginase and NOS

(A) Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RBCs from WT (n = 5) and db/db (n = 5) mice determined using electron spin resonance. (B to G) ROS levels in RBCs from WT and db/db mice determined using flow cytometry, (B) under basal condition (WT n = 6 and db/db n = 6), (C) following incubation with vehicle or the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1 mmol/l, WT n = 6 and db/db n = 6), (D) following incubation with vehicle or the arginase inhibitor 2 (S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) (0.1 mmol/l, WT n = 7 and db/db n = 7), (E) following incubation with vehicle or the nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (0.1 mmol/l, WT n = 8 and db/db n = 8), (F) following incubation with the inducible isoform of NOS inhibitor 1400W (0.1 mmol/l, WT n = 8 and db/db n = 8, using electron spin resonance), and (G) following incubation with vehicle or L-arginine (3 mmol/l, WT n = 5 and db/db n = 5). ROS generation in WT RBCs is used as standard in B to F. Significant differences are shown; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.