Figure 2: In Vitro Proliferation of Sheep Atrial Myofibroblasts

(A) Galectin (Gal)-3 increases proliferation of sheep atrial myofibroblasts; effects are blocked by GM-CT-01 (GMCT). SFM: treatment with serum free medium, negative control; FM: treatment with full media (10% FBS), positive control. N = 2 to 3, n = 4 to 12; ***p < 0.001 versus SFM, Gal-3 (1 μg/ml), Gal-3 (10 μg/ml) + GMCT (0.6 mg/ml); #p < 0.05, ###p < 0.001 versus Gal-3 (10 μg/ml) + GMCT (0.125 mg/ml). (B) Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) increases proliferation of sheep atrial myofibroblasts; effects are blocked by GMCT (N = 2 to 3, n = 4 to 12; *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05 vs. FM). (C) Pre-treatment with a TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody (TGF-β1 NAb, 1 ng/ml) blocks Gal-3-induced (10 μg/ml) increase in proliferation (*p < 0.05, *** p < 0.001; N = 3, n = 4 to 18). (D) Gal-1 increases proliferation of sheep atrial myofibroblasts; effects are not blocked by GMCT (N = 5, n = 13 to 15; *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05, and ####p < 0.0001 vs. FM). N = number of animals; n = number of dishes.