Figure 2: Effects of Lp(a) Treatment on HAVIC Calcification and Apoptosis

(A) Prolonged Lp(a) treatment for 3 weeks at 50 μg/ml in OSM increased calcification nodule formation in HAVICs (arrows). (B) Calcium deposition measured after 2 weeks of Lp(a) incubation. *p = 0.03, **p = 0.001 vs. control; #p = 0.04 vs. Lp(a)-treated cells. (C) Lp(a) demonstrated a greater effect on calcium deposition than LDL (Alfa Aesar, Tewksbury, Massachusetts) after 2 weeks of incubation in OSM. *p < 0.00001 vs. OSM control; #p = 0.006, Lp(a) treated vs. LDL treated. (D) Lp(a) effects on HAVIC apoptosis assessed using caspase-3/7 activity. *p = 0.0003, Lp(a)-treated vs. DMEM; #p = 0.007 Lp(a)-treated vs. OSM. DMEM = Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; other abbreviations as in Figure 1.