Figure 2: CTGF mAb Enhances LV Function (Study I)

Mice were subjected to MI, and 3 days after surgery randomly divided to receive either IgG vehicle or CTGF mAb for 4 days. (A) Survival of animals during the experiment. (B) Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic dimension (LVID;d), and posterior wall thickness (LVPW;d) were analyzed by echocardiography at 7 days after MI injury. (C) Ratio of thickness of septum versus thickness of infarct and the infarct expansion index. (D) Analysis of interstitial fibrosis from picrosirius red−stained LV sections under polarized light. Masson’s trichrome-stained sections from the same tissue block are also shown. Scale bar: 50 μm. (E) Western blot analysis of LV samples from infarct areas for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), p38, and SMAD2. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as loading control. Data are presented as mean ± SD; number of animals was sham (n = 4), IgG (n = 5), and CTGF mAb (n = 8). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.