Figure 2: Absolute Metabolic Rates and Cardiac Efficiency in

Metabolic rates are shown for palmitate oxidation (n = 8 to 10/group) (A), glucose oxidation (n = 8 to 10/group) (B), glycolysis (8 to 9/group) (C), β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) oxidation (n = 8 to 9/group) (D), and total adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production (8 to 10/group) (E). Cardiac efficiency calculated as cardiac work/O2 consumed (n = 9 to 12/group) (F) is also shown. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA to determine differences within the same insulin status and between groups in the presence or absence of insulin followed by LSD post hoc test. Four separate 1-way ANOVAs were performed to determine each substrate’s contribution to ATP production. Cardiac efficiency was analyzed by repeated 1-way ANOVA followed by LSD post hoc test. *p < 0.05 was considered as a significantly different comparison with C57BL/6J + Vehicle. For E, ‡p < 0.05 was considered as a significantly different in comparison with C57BL/6J + Vehicle within the same insulin status. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

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