Figure 1: Study Design

We analyzed a cohort of 43 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy for molecular changes that are induced by beta-blocking agents. Among the patients on beta-blocking agents, we selected patients with poor (n = 13) versus good prognosis (n = 17) to identify gene expression changes in patients who improved during therapy with beta-blockers. Two-thirds of the data were used as a train set to develop the biomarker (poor prognosis n = 8; good prognosis: n = 11) and one-third of the data was used as an independent test set for validation of the molecular signature (poor prognosis: n = 5; good prognosis: n = 6).