Figure 1: Proposed Interplay Between Apoptosis and Endothelial Senescence and Its Implications for Pathogenesis

ATM = ataxia telangiectasia mutated; b-FGF = basic fibroblast growth factor; ERK = extracellular signal-regulated kinase; IGF = insulin-like growth factor; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MAPK = mitogen-activated protein kinase; SASP = senescence-associated secretory phenotype; SEK1 = stress-activated protein kinase 1; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.

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