Figure 1: Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy of a Representative Myocardial Sample Before and After LVAD Unloading

(Top) Before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) unloading (red); (bottom) after LVAD unloading (green). The insets show the area under the curve ratio of metabolite signals at pre- (pink) and post-LVAD (green) time points. The glycolysis intermediates glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), pyruvate, and lactate increased significantly post-LVAD. Similarly, the branched chain amino acids leucine (leu) and isoleucine (ile) also increased in the post-LVAD unloading sample.