Figure 1: Fstl1 Levels Are Increased in HFpEF

(A) Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) serum levels in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (n = 32) versus control subjects (Control) (n = 8). (B) Fstl1 protein levels in adult rat cardiac myocytes (ARVM) stimulated with aldosterone (Aldo) 1 μmol/l (n = 5 per group). (C) Fstl1 mRNA and (D) protein levels and representative immunohistochemistry of Fstl1 staining in the left ventricle of Sham (E) and HFpEF (F) mice (n = 5 to 7 mice/group). Black arrows in E and F indicate Fstl1 staining. Data are mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis by 2-tailed Student t test. GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.