Figure 1: Dimethyl Celecoxib Prevents CN Formation in AVICs but Celecoxib Promotes CN Formation Through Myofibroblast Induction

(A) Cyclic biaxial strain and TGF-β1 induce CN formation, identified by Alizarin Red staining. (B) Treatment with celecoxib increases the number of CNs formed in the untreated and TGF-β1–treated cases. Dimethyl celecoxib treatment reduces the number of TGF-β1–induced CNs. (C) TGF-β1 treatment increases contractility. Celecoxib pre-treatment also increases contractility to the level of ND + TGF-β1. Treatment with celecoxib increases expression of α-SMA (D and F) and CDH11 (E and F). n ≥ 3. *p < 0.05 versus ND, #p < 0.05 versus ND + TGF-β1, **p < 0.001 versus same pre-treatment, ##p < 0.001 versus ND + TGF-β1. Scale bars indicate 1 mm (A) and 100 μm (F). AVIC = aortic valve interstitial cell; CCB = celecoxib; CN = calcific nodule; DMC = dimethyl celecoxib; ND = no drug; TGF = transforming growth factor.

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