Figure 1: Calpain Activity Is Increased in Human Heart Failure

(A) Calpain activity assay in myocardium from healthy donors (n = 4, 45.0 ± 5.3 years of age), ICM patients (n = 4, 47.0 ± 4.7 years of age), and DCM patients (n = 6, 44.0 ± 7.5 years of age). (B–E) Representative images of Western blots (B) and quantitation of calpain-1 (C), calpastatin (D), JP2 (E), and cleaved form of fodrin (F) in left ventricular lysates from samples of A. GAPDH was used as the loading control. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 versus healthy donor. DCM = dilated cardiomyopathy; ICM = ischemic cardiomyopathy; n.s. = not significant.