Figure 1: Boundary Layer Phenomenon and Concept of the Liquid Biopsy System

(A) Atherosclerotic plaque-associated biomolecules remained trapped in a discrete flow layer adjacent to the vessel wall (blue zone). (B) The LBS, designed specifically to mix and sample from this boundary layer, is passed over a standard intracoronary guidewire used in all coronary angioplasty and stent procedures. (C) Once positioned, the LBS sheath is retracted, deploying dedicated mixing structures that disrupt the boundary later and divert entrained biomolecules into the bulk flow from where they may be simultaneously sampled directly by vacuum suction through 1 of 4 discrete ports equally spaced along the catheter. (D) Differential concentrations of such biomolecules may then be measured by multiplex assays to determine transplaque, intracoronary gradients. LBS = Liquid Biopsy System.