Figure 1: β-Arrestins Participate in the Regulation of Cardiac GPCR Signaling Through Homologous and Heterologous Desensitization

This is a cartoon representation of the selective roles of β-arrestin1 versus β-arrestin2 in regulating the canonical homologous desensitization of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) versus heterologous GPCR desensitization and their consequences for cardiac signaling. Gα = G alpha subunit; Gαs = G alpha subunit; P = phosphorylation; PKA = protein kinase A; PKC = protein kinase C.