Figure 4: GMCT Reduces Atrial Fibrosis
TakemotoYoshio
J. RamirezRafael
YokokawaMiki
KaurKuljeet
Ponce-BalbuenaDaniela
SinnoMohamad C.
WillisB. Cicero
GhanbariHamid
EnnisSteven R.
Guerrero-SernaGuadalupe
HenziBettina C.
LatchamsettyRakesh
Ramos-MondragonRoberto
MusaHassan
MartinsRaphael P.
PanditSandeep V.
NoujaimSami F.
CrawfordThomas
JongnarangsinKrit
PelosiFrank
BogunFrank
ChughAman
BerenfeldOmer
MoradyFred
OralHakan
JalifeJosé
2019
<b>(A)</b> Serum levels of procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (P3NP) during atrial fibrillation (AF) progression in saline-treated and GM-CT-01 (GMCT)–treated (N = 10, respectively) groups. Repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple comparisons test, §p < 0.05 versus GMCT at 35d-PeAF, <i>#</i>p < 0.05 versus GMCT at baseline. <b>(B)</b> Protein levels of galectin (Gal)-3, Gal-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in left atrium (LA) tissue samples (N = 4, respectively). <b>(C) Left</b>: Representative picrosirius red staining of posterior left atrium (PLA). <b>Right</b>: Percentage of picrosirius red showing interstitial fibrosis from sham (N = 4), saline-treated (N = 10), and GMCT-treated (N = 10) groups. <b>(D) (Left)</b> Representative blots of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) from <b>(left lane)</b> sham, <b>(middle lane)</b> saline, and <b>(right lane)</b> GMCT. <b>(Right)</b> α-SMA in atrial homogenates in sham, saline-treated, and GMCT-treated (N = 4, respectively) groups. <b>(E)</b> pSmad2(Ser465/467)/Smad2/3 in LA tissue samples (N = 3 to 4). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. 1d-AF = first 1-day-long atrial fibrillation episode; 1st-AF = first atrial fibrillation episode; 7d-PeAF = first continuous 7-day stretch of persistent atrial fibrillation; 35d-PeAF = first continuous 35-day stretch of persistent atrial fibrillation; GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.